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Expository Essay写作有哪些详细攻略

发布时间:2022/11/8 14:48:45

  我们留学生在进行Expository Essay写作前,首先需要懂得什么是“Expository”?说Expository的对象又是什么?本文小编就为大家带来比较详细的Expository Essay写作攻略,帮助不会写Expository Essay的同学们掌握写作方法。

 

  何为Expository Essay?

  什么是Expository Essay?

  “Expository writing”中的“expository”是“说明的;解释的;评注的”意思,动词“expose”也就是to explain,illuminate,to give information in order to make something clear.

  所以,Expository Essay就是以说明为主要表达方式的文章体裁,它通过对实体事物科学地解说,对客观事物做出说明或对抽象事理的阐释,使人们对事物的形态、构造、性质、种类、成因、功能、关系或对事理的概念、特点、来源、演变、异同等能有科学的认识,从而获得有关的知识。

  说明文常见语境有:journalism,business,scientific/academic writing。比如textbooks,news reports,recipes,brochure。其实,本篇经验分享也属于说明文的文体,因为讲解本质上就是说明性质的。

  Journalism.Almost every news article fits into the"explain,inform,or describe"definition.News is all about expository writing.

  Business.Press releases,reports,and business letters are all exposition.

  Scientific/Academic Writing.Some embodiments of the exposition essay in academia are:cause and effect essays,definition and classification essays,compare and contrast essays,scientific journals,and term papers.

  写作大赛复赛要求选手们“完成一篇说明文写作(300-500词)”。侧重考查的就是选手解说事物、阐明事理的能力,以及运用知识、观察理解、梳理分析、提炼总结、跨文化沟通的综合能力。

  说明对象是谁?

  在清楚Expository Essay写作目的之后,我们需要认真审题,思考一下写出的这篇essay应该给出什么信息,即说明的对象是什么。

  明确写作对象让我们能够找到合适的展开方式;例如,“变化”类事物,可以根据不同时间阶段来介绍;“解释使用类”可根据步骤来展开……同样还需要注意的是,没有人会喜欢一个无趣的说明文,所以最好能够结合题目选择一个能够激起你兴趣的切入视角,这样就会让你的文章读起来充满热情和活力。

  接下来小编会结合Expository Essay的三点评分标准来进行分析。

  1.Content/Ideas(40%)

  (1)Writing effectively addresses the topic and the task;

  (2)Writing presents a clear thesis;

  (3)Writing maintains a formal style and an objective tone

  评分标准的第一部分——内容,要求大家怎么做呢?

  (1)围绕说明对象展开(不要过多提及没有关联的事物,例如说明某地特色文化时,就不能大篇幅描写自然风景,可以一句话带过);

  (2)说明文属于正式文体,需要的是impersonal/precise use of language。因此最好不要体现出个人态度倾向(避免使用I/my等字眼,以及过多的描述词汇,如形容词、副词)。

  2.Organization/Development(30%)

  (1)Writing is well-organized and well-developed,using appropriate development patterns(e.g.,definition,illustration,casual analysis,process analysis,classification,comparison/contrast,etc.)to support the thesis or to illustrate ideas;

  (2)Writing displays coherence,progression,consistency and unity;

  (3)Textual elements are well-connected through explicit logical and/or linguistic transitions.

  在说明文写作时,最好的状态是假设读者没有任何先验知识,即不了解话题信息。但是读完文章后可以了解到关于这个话题的全部信息,或学到一些新的知识。所以在写作中,为了让读者快速了解一件事物,文章的发展脉络一定要符合读者的理解方式。

  这里,我们可以遵从如下原则:

  1.从宏观到微观,即从整体趋势到个别;

  2.从相同点到不同点;

  3.从先发生的到后发生的。

  明确了说明顺序,有了大致脉络之后,我们需要细化到段落安排,也就是说明的角度/维度。说明角度/维度可以根据说明对象和说明顺序/脉络来定,可以使用分类法,比较法等方式来说明。

  3.Language(30%)

  (1)Spelling is accurate;

  (2)Writing displays consistent facility in use of language;

  (3)Writing demonstrates appropriate register,syntactic variety,and effective use of vocabulary.

  对Essay写作有了基本了解后,还需要对自己的文章进行提升和润色。小编为大家总结出以下要点:

  After you have a basic understanding of the composition of Expository Essay,you still need to improve and polish your articles.The editor summarized the following points for everyone:

  语言:

  Language:

  1.目的明朗

  1.Clear purpose

  2.重视逻辑联系

  2.Attach importance to logical connection

  3.考虑读者接受性

  3.Consider readership

  Expository Essay写作常用结构:五段式结构

  The structure commonly used in Expository Essay writing:five paragraph structure

  第一段:中心思想/说明目的

  Paragraph 1:Central idea/purpose

  第二至四段:主体段落(按顺序、分类别、从不同层面进行说明)

  The second to fourth paragraphs:main paragraphs(described in order,categories and at different levels)

  第五段:结尾

  Paragraph 5:End

  Expository Essay写作类型

  Exposure Essay Writing Type

  说明文类型多样,一般可以从两种途径分类。

  There are many types of expository texts,which can be classified in two ways.

  第一种根据题目给出的形式来分类,比如文字题(解说概念/事物)和图表题(总结特征,描述并分析)。

  The first is classified according to the form given by the title,such as text title(explaining concepts/things)and chart title(summarizing characteristics,describing and analyzing).

  第二种根据不同的说明要求来划分,比如描述类(Describe the characteristics or features of a person,thing,process,event,etc.),步骤类(Sequence/process:first,second...),比较类(Comparison/contrast:alike/different),因果类(Cause and effect:why and or how things happen and what happens as a result)和问题类(Problem and solution)。

  The second type is divided according to different description requirements,such as Describe the characteristics or features of a person,thing,process,event,etc.,Sequence/process:first,second...,Comparison/contrast:like/different,Cause and effect:why and or how things happen and what happens as a result,and Problem and solution.

  送给大家两个写作小贴士:

  Two tips for writing:

  1.图表题重在找出隐含逻辑关系,要说清显化关系。

  1.The chart focuses on finding the implicit logical relationship,and the explicit relationship should be mentioned.

  2.文字题给出的指示通常会比较明确(比如解释一个概念,利弊比较,解决方法,操作步骤等),重在语言表述清晰、精准。

  2.The instructions given by word questions are usually clear(such as explaining a concept,comparing advantages and disadvantages,solutions,operating steps,etc.),focusing on clear and accurate language expression.

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